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Herbert Eugene Bolton: the Historian and the Man, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, John Francis Bannon, S. Bannon traces Bolton's life and career from rural Wisconsin, through graduate studies with Frederick Jackson Turner at the University of Wisconsin, and at Pennsylvania, followed by faculty positions at the University of Texas , and Stanford , culminating with his long career at the University of California, Berkeley, spanning the period Bolton became curator of The Bancroft Library in and director in , chairman of the Department of History in , and Sather Professor of History in During retirement, , he was called back to teach, direct the Centennial History of California, and fill in for Priestley after Priestley became incapacitated and died.
Herbert I. Berkeley: University of California press, In the aftermath of the Seven Years War, , Spain inherited Louisiana, which created an empire that embraced the whole continent west of the Mississippi. Galvez, the greatest of Spain's visitor generals, was ordered to New Spain to analyze and recommend improved administration, economic policies, and military defense for such vast domains.
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Among his recommendations was the creation of the Provincias Internas , a new military organization for northern frontiers that led directly to the colonization of Alta California in Originally Priestley's doctoral dissertation, this work was a pioneering study in the field of Spanish colonial administration. The book won the Loubat Prize at Columbia University in , and has remained an enduring treatise on Galvez and his institutional reforms. Memorandum to Herbert E. Carbon typescript, 22 January He carried on a prodigious correspondence soliciting gifts of all kinds.
When the university funds ran out, he often used his own money to keep the letters and materials flowing. In this communique, Priestley also requests that his title be changed to librarian from assistant curator, his title when he arrived in As the librarian, there was no one more dedicated or who loved the Bancroft Library more. Through all of his travails as librarian, he represented a generous humanity to all those he served, especially the graduate students who affectionately knew him as Pop.
The Mexican Nation, a History ,.
New York: The Macmillan Company, , [c]. Priestley's semipopular text on Mexico, which remained a standard for two decades, illustrates his great love for Mexico, its people and history, especially the modern period. He was sympathetic with the human and social goals of the Revolution of The Coming of the White Man, New York: The Macmillan Co. Priestley expressed his thoughts on the role of Spain in shaping the culture of the American world, complemented by the impact of other European cultures such as the French and Dutch in early American life.
France Overseas; a Study of Modern Imperialism. New York: D. Appleton-Century Co. New York: London, D. These volumes represent an extension of Priestley's research in European colonial administrations and a reflection of his wide interest in international themes throughout the world. He was appointed chairman of the Committee on International Studies in , and also taught international relations in the Department of Political Science. Constantly strapped for funds, Priestley was always on the lookout for possible gifts or exchange arrangements such as that proposed to Leonard.
Through his wide scholarly memberships and contacts in the United States and Latin America, he mounted a prodigious program of solicitations for materials of all types. By these means, Priestley built vast printed collections of government publications, journals of learned societies, ephemera, and scholarly monographs, besides the manuscripts that so interested Bolton. He also enlisted the aid of graduate students, who visited agencies and institutes in search of free materials.
Agapito Rey. As scholar-librarian, Priestley also had an active professorial life. He received his doctorate at 42, and was appointed assistant professor in ; he was advanced to associate professor of Mexican history in , and to professor in a rapid ascent at that time. Besides his publishing, he was active in a wide array of historical and social science organizations and other professional organizations, and remained so until his death in George P. Hammond completed his doctoral work in at the University of California, with Herbert E.
Bolton as his mentor, having spent a year in Spain gathering documentation for his dissertation in the Archivo General de Indias in Seville. His thesis also became his first book publication, appearing in a revised and condensed form after being serialized in the New Mexico Historical Review , Translated, edited, and annotated by George P. Hammond and Agapito Rey. Los Angeles, Calif. In , Hammond began his long association with Agapito Rey, who worked closely with him as translator. In the Seville archives, Hammond had come upon this manuscript written by an old Spanish soldier, who had been stationed on the northern frontier of Mexico.
With major publications such as this beginning to appear nearly every year, Hammond also held teaching positions at the University of North Dakota, the University of Arizona, and the University of Southern California. He settled at the University of New Mexico in There, while teaching and pursuing his own research, he was appointed as Dean of the Graduate School.
He founded the Quivira Society for scholarly publications there and succeeded in getting enough money from university funds to buy a new printing press for both the Society's and the university's publications. Narratives of the Coronado Expedition, The Coronado Cuarto Centennial publications, , were inaugurated in at the University of New Mexico, under the general editorship of George P. Although the second volume in the series, this was the first to appear. Signatures of both Bolton and Hammond appear in this presentation copy from Dr.
Hammond to Dr. It was carried by Bolton on his travels in when, at the age of 70, he joined Hammond's party in its study of the various routes of the Coronado expedition. Bolton's work resulting from the trek, Coronado on the Turquoise Trail, Knight of Pueblos atid Plains , the first volume in the series, appeared in In , Dr. Hammond accepted the joint positions of professor of history and director of The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley.
Herbert Eugene Bolton by Albert L. Hurtado - Hardcover - University of California Press
Immediately he invited Roscoe R. Hill, senior staff member at the National Archives, to survey the needs of the library and make recommendations. Besides comments on the library's obvious need for more space and better working conditions, Hill recommended a series of guides to the manuscript collections. Plans immediately went forward to produce not only guides to specific collections but also to the whole of the manuscript collections.
These impressive volumes, also part of the Coronado Cuarto Centennial publications, built on the early work Hammond did in the s for his thesis at the University of California. Hammond speaking to the Friends of The Bancroft Library at their annual meeting. Soon after his arrival at Bancroft, Hammond realized that state funding alone would not be sufficient to build the library he envisioned.
He and a group of enthusiastic users of the library founded the Friends of The Bancroft Library in as a nonprofit organization to provide supplemental funding for acquisitions The group has provided remarkable support over the years, underwriting the publication of Bancroftiana the occasional newsletter of the Friends , the publication of an annual keepsake series handsomely published books often derived from the resources of the Library , and the purchase of individual research items and substantial collections.
The Epic of Greater America
Portrait of George P. Hammond, As Director, Dr. Hammond guided The Bancroft Library from being a quiet preserve of advanced scholars concerned with the development and Western North America to being a fullfledged, largely independent, modern research library. During his administration, the collections grew exponentially and Bancroft's staff expanded and evolved into a group of specialists concerned with all aspects of the acquisition, use, and administration of the library's resources. Forty-one years old and pregnant, Rosaline was responsible for a poor farm and a large family.
Every dollar counted. From Edwin's pension Rosaline received eight dollars a month plus two dollars for each child under the age of sixteen. Herbert and his five younger siblings thus added twelve dollars per month to the family treasury, but only briefly. He turned sixteen in One year later his thirteen-year-old brother, Johnnie, was thrown from the driver's seat when his team bolted; he was killed in the fall.
Herbert's maturity and Johnnie's death reduced the family income by four dollars per month. All of the boys pitched in to keep the farm and the family together. Fred went to La Crosse to teach school and sent money home. Herbert started high school in Tomah, where he worked for room and board at a local hotel. School was a common topic in the letters of the two education-minded brothers. He was in the same business that Fred was, "teachin skule," he once joked, because the teacher was sick. Herbert liked school, although he described many of his fellow pupils as "country Jakes.
In high school he studied history, but at fifteen Herbert did not think of this subject as a professional option. He studied "very hard evenings as well as day time. Don't have much time for mischief. But Herbert did find a little time for devilment. He cut school once to look over the old Bolton farmstead at the Ridge, perhaps wishing that his father had not left his good farm for a dream in Nebraska.
Sometimes he got a "good 'solemn lecture'" at school for failing to keep up with his homework, but these occasions were rare. Another time, spring weather inspired Herbert and some friends to skip school and go fishing. They were caught in a cold rain, but Herbert persevered and returned home with a bit of doggerel that described his experience:. He was not above a practical joke. One night Herbert and some friends saw one of their schoolmates visiting his girl. They "tied the [barn? Rural life was not Herbert's idea of an attractive future, but the countryside had its charms for an active boy.
He loved to saddle a horse and ride around the country with his friends. In Tomah Herbert made a name for himself as an athlete. He played baseball with the local team, the unfortunately named Skunks. Herbert was the fastest sprinter in high school, and the best broad jumper. He would always revel in the outdoors and in physical activity as long as they had nothing to do with farming. Herbert was a likable youth who liked other people. Affability was one of his most endearing traits, though he committed himself to solitary habits of study.
In some ways, the adult would become almost monkish in his pursuit of scholarship, but the teenaged Herbert was no monk. He liked his friends and enjoyed parties. Yet Herbert's teen years were marked by unusual seriousness of purpose. He had his fun but worked to make a success of high school just as he worked hard on the farm. As he said, he would have to work hard if he ever intended "to be anybody, which I cert[ainly] do. Girls noticed the blonde boy with the sunny disposition.
They smiled at him, and he smiled back, although he sometimes reported that he was giving up girls in favor of hard work so that he could get ahead. Herbert met her when carrying blueberries from the farm to sell at the Tunnel City trading post. Eventually she attended high school in Tomah, so Herbert saw a lot of her there. He kept her in sight on Sundays by going to church in Tunnel City. In his senior year Herbert liked Gertrude well enough to be jealous of a boy who competed for her affection.
Consequently he planned to attend church a little oftener than usual, "till he has withdrawn from the field. In the summer of Herbert worked as printer's devil at the weekly Tomah Journal. It paid six dollars per week and was preferable to "granging it," as Herbert derisively called farmwork. His stint with the weekly may have sharpened his interest in current events. Essentially apolitical in the partisan sense, Bolton had a keen sense of personal and institutional relations that would serve him well throughout his career. He probably acquired these skills in the Bolton family matrix.
As historian Frank Sulloway argues, siblings must develop strategies for obtaining their shares of family resources such as food, shelter, wealth, affection, and encouragement. Thus each child develops a niche in the family and a way of maximizing his or her chances for survival. The fourth son in a very large family, Herbert capitalized on his innate strengths and developed talents that set him apart from his older brothers. His good looks, athletic prowess, pleasing personality, affability, sense of humor, good health, capacity for hard work, attention to detail, and ability to get along with people made Herbert a good son, a successful student, and a valued employee.
These personal qualities served him well throughout his life. Fred, the second son, blazed the trail of higher education and escape for Herbert, but his older brother's struggle for advancement showed that the scholar's life was not a perfect meritocracy. A certain amount of shrewdness was needed in order to succeed, and Herbert, even as a teenager, seemed to have it.
In Fred wanted a teacher's job at Tunnel City, so he wrote to Mrs. Janes Gertrude's mother , who was a school board director. After Fred's mother went to see Janes and the board clerk about the position, Herbert reported to Fred, "I guess they want you.
His brother got the job. Such jobs were just stepping stones for the Bolton boys. The following year, Fred resigned so that he could attend the state normal school in Milwaukee. Education was a family affair, with most of the older siblings helping to pay for expenses whenever they could. Fred was only the third graduate of Tomah High School to attend college, so his matriculation in Milwaukee was a big thing, especially to Herbert.
He asked his older brother about everything-girls, extracurricular activity, books, everything. Herbert was already looking past Milwaukee and hoped to attend the state university in Madison. He knew that he would "have to work a while," but the dream was there. Fred was showing that with hard work and some help from home, the dream could be realized. A senior now, Herbert was anxious to be out on his own.
Graduation was fast approaching. The teachers had chosen him to speak at commencement, and this honor brought out his insecurity. Commencement evidently came and went without great trauma caused by a botched valedictory. At least Herbert never mentioned it in his letters to Fred. Now the road was open to the future.
Nearly nineteen, Herbert had accomplished as much as he could have in the little community bounded by the farm, Tomah, and Tunnel City. Optimistic, attractive, and outgoing, Herbert faced the future certain of only one thing: a lot of hard work. Even so, success was not assured.
The track for advancement he had chosen, higher education, was virtually unknown to him. From Tomah he could see only a few paces ahead as his brother proceeded. Yet he was determined to make something of himself through ambition and hard work. Herbert did not know it, but a place was already being prepared for him. Their purpose was straightforward: the promotion of historical studies "without limitations of time or space," as Harvard professor Justin Winsor explained.
They would form a new professional class: college professors with a doctorate.
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The AHA founders took the German academy and its faculties as their model. The new American doctor-professors would transform their universities into Germanic research institutions whose mission was to investigate history rather than to merely reiterate well-worn moral tales about the past.
The transformation involved the establishment of doctoral programs so that as time marched on new generations of American-trained PhDs would fill the ranks of the professorate in the United States. It followed that institutions with doctoral programs would attain the highest level of prestige among colleges and universities. Thus research universities, graduate schools, and doctoral production formed a self-perpetuating and self-justifying regime. None of this was laid out in the AHA constitution, but it nevertheless came to pass.
In the AHA passed a resolution that called for the careful recording of the history of the western states and territories. A second resolution called for cataloging historical documents concerning the United States held in European archives. A third resolution commended the German historian Leopold von Ranke, "the oldest and most distinguished exponent" of "historical science.
The AHA founders envisioned their historical enterprise as an excruciatingly detailed Rankean effort that would be global in extent. Before there could be a proper history of the United States, specialists must assemble the documents, whether they were in Leadville or London. The teenaged Herbert had no way of knowing about these resolutions, but they defined his life's work. In the summer of the arcane discussions of historians did not concern Herbert.
He was looking for a job. Like his brother, he hoped to teach school, but it was not an easy matter for an inexperienced high school graduate to convince school boards that he was up to the task. He searched for a position with characteristic energy and thoroughness. In a flurry of writing he sent letters to fourteen schools. Whenever possible, Herbert spoke with board members and clerks. Surely, he explained to Fred, after all of this activity he "must get something of a place.
Once Fred's schooling was complete, he would help finance Herbert's college years. The striving brothers would alternate years of school teaching with stints as college students. This was the scholars' hard road of upward mobility that would culminate in university professorships for the Boltons. But first Herbert had to get a job, and school boards were remarkably unimpressed with the nineteen-year-old inexperienced but earnest applicant.
In the summer Fred worked for a lumber company in Granite, Wisconsin, so Herbert followed him there. When Fred departed for Milwaukee in late summer, Herbert took his job as store manager. This brought him into contact with a rough, migratory laboring class of lumberjacks and shingle weavers. It must have been difficult for a boy so young to look such men in the eye and tell them what they owed the company store.
Fred and Herbert may have been college men, or at least college bound, but they were not pansies. They wrestled with the lumberjacks on their days off and gave a good account of themselves. Herbert made friends with some of the more colorful characters who worked in the woods. He recounted some of their misadventures-and their debts to the store-in his letters to Fred. These encounters must have reminded the Boltons that they were not too far removed from the laborers' life that they were trying to escape for good. In September Herbert finally heard that the small town of York had decided to take a chance on him.
He settled business in Granite and departed for his new job with a sense of purpose and affection for "the renowned new York," the "home of my heart and the center of all rural attractions. Most of his scholars were almost as old as he was. Some young men already had moustaches. The school was ungraded, which meant that he taught students of all ages in the same room. He was grateful that all but two of his charges were able to read and write. Teaching in York was good experience for Herbert, but he led a solitary life while preparing for Normal. As usual he asked Fred for advice about books to read.
The uncertainty of regular pay at York troubled him too, because he had a hard time forwarding money to Fred. His affection for the small town quickly wore thin. It is so lonesome here.