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Te Ara. The movement of peoples around the Pacific and from Asia into the Pacific over the last 6, years. New Zealand was the last significant land mass outside the Arctic and Antarctic to be settled. The Polynesian culture emerged in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga from the earlier Lapita culture, which had formed from the mixing of the Melanesian peoples already living in Near Oceania with migrants from the vicinity of Taiwan. A broad range of evidence — including radiocarbon dating, analysis of pollen which measures vegetation change and volcanic ash, DNA evidence, genealogical dating and studies of animal extinction and decline — suggests that New Zealand's first permanent settlements were established between and It has a double spritsail rig and appears to be made from two canoes of different length and design lashed together.

Archaeologist Atholl Anderson argues that the double spritsail was the most likely type of sailing rig used by the Polynesian voyagers who reached New Zealand in the 13th century. According to many tribal narratives, Kupe was the first Pacific explorer to discover the islands of New Zealand.

Stories about his exploration on his canoe, the Matawhaorua or Matahorua , differ from region to region but often feature a fight with a great wheke octopus. One of the captains remembered as voyaging to New Zealand was Turi, the captain of the Aotea canoe. Stories of Turi and Kupe are intertwined throughout the Pacific.

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Waka landing places. For more information about each of the waka and their voyages of exploration, see Te Ara's entries on Canoe navigation and Canoe traditions. For around years their descendants lived on the Chatham Islands without contact with other peoples and the unique Moriori culture developed. Polynesian Voyaging Society — founded in Hawaii in , the Polynesian Voyaging Society builds replica canoes and sails them using traditional navigation methods.

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Title Title Dr. First name. Last name. The study's DNA research revealed that, while many ocean dispersals may have occurred over time, only two led to the current faunas: one for the Caribbean islands and another for Central America. The scientists speculate that it may not be coincidental that these ancient and successful dispersals happened after the asteroid collision rather than earlier.

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The original frogs that successfully colonized the Caribbean islands likely hitched a ride on floating mats of vegetation called flotsam, which is the method typically used by land animals to travel across salt water. It is not likely that the frog species dispersed simply by swimming because frogs dry easily and are not very tolerant of salt water.


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In addition to the study's discoveries about Caribbean and Central American frogs, the research also revealed and defined an unusually large and unpredicted group of species in South America. Scientists consider the knowledge of evolutionary relationships, also called "phylogeny," to be fundamental to many fields of biology, including medicine, anatomy, physiology, ecology, and conservation. The latter program is an effort to understand the "tree of life," or the relationships among all organisms.

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A major goal of NASA's Astrobiology Roadmap is to understand how past life on Earth interacted with its changing planetary environment, such as asteroid impacts and connections of continents. Materials provided by Penn State. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Science News.